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Client-Side Technologies

 Client-Side Technologies

Client Side Technologies are the tools and languages that run in the user's web browser, rather than on a web server.

In the world of web development, client-side technologies handle:

  • Web page layout
  • Form input validation
  • User interaction
  • Dynamic changes in web page content


HTML is the standard markup language used to create web pages and web applications. Its elements form the building blocks of pages, representing formatted text, images, form inputs, and other structures. When a browser makes a request to a URL, whether fetching a page or an application, the first thing that is returned is an HTML document. This HTML document may reference or include additional information about its look and layout in the form of CSS, or behavior in the form of JavaScript.


CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is used to control the look and layout of HTML elements. CSS styles can be applied directly to an HTML element, defined separately on the same page, or defined in a separate file and referenced by the page. Styles cascade based on how they are used to select a given HTML element.


JavaScript is a dynamic, interpreted programming language that has been standardized in the ECMAScript language specification. It is the programming language of the web. Like CSS, JavaScript can be defined as attributes within HTML elements, as blocks of script within a page, or in separate files. Just like CSS, it's recommended to organize JavaScript into separate files, keeping it separated as much as possible from the HTML found on individual web pages or application views.


Angular remains one of the world's most popular JavaScript frameworks. Since Angular 2, the team rebuilt the framework from the ground up (using TypeScript) and rebranded from the original AngularJS name to Angular. Now several years old, the redesigned Angular continues to be a robust framework for building Single Page Applications.


Unlike Angular, which offers a full Model-View-Controller pattern implementation, React is only concerned with views. It's not a framework, just a library, so to build a SPA you'll need to leverage additional libraries. There are a number of libraries that are designed to be used with React to produce rich single page applications.

One of React's most important features is its use of a virtual DOM. The virtual DOM provides React with several advantages, including performance (the virtual DOM can optimize which parts of the actual DOM need to be updated) and testability (no need to have a browser to test React and its interactions with its virtual DOM).


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